Business Use Case Overview

Treasury's Office of Financial Innovation and Transformation (FIT) is designated as the managing parter for the Federal Financial Management (FFM) Line of Business. With the assistance of a working group consisting of most of the CFO Act agencies and shared service providers, FIT has developed a library of FFM business use cases which reflect the business needs, or requirements that nan agency must follow, in the financial management community.

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The Federal Financial Management (FFM) Business Use Cases are part of the Federal Integrated Business Framework (FIBF). The FIBF documents common business needs across agencies. The FIBF can be used to guide performance and investment discussions as well as for acquiring and implementing government-wide solutions. To that end, FFM FIBF components are included in the Financial Management Capability Framework (FMCF). This framework is the foundation for all offerings in the Financial Management (FM) Quality Service Management Office (QSMO) Marketplace.

FM Capability Framework

Refer to the Guide to the FM QSMO Marketplace for a description of each FMCF component and how the components relate to each other.


FFM business use cases reflect the business processes that an agency should follow in the financial management community.

The FFM Business Use Case Library provides agencies with a resource for:

  • Improving federal financial management workflow and process efficiency
  • Evaluating impacts to federal financial management business processes due to changes in legislation, regulation, guidance, and procedures
  • Evaluating federal financial management services/solutions during acquisition and implementation.
  • Training and development of the federal financial management workforce
  • Evaluating the sequential steps, or events, needed to perform a process where the responsibility for a successful outcome is shared with another Functional Area
  • Refining roles and responsibilities among agency finance, program, and other supporting function offices.

The FFM Business Use Case Library consists of this overview document and a series of documents containing the business use cases. Each business use case document contains the use cases for one end-to-end business process.

This overview document provides the framework for understanding and using the business use cases. It contains an introduction to the key components of the business use cases, an inventory of the available FFM business use cases, and examples of how the FFM business use cases may be combined and sequenced in typical agency operations. Reference information on the terminology used in this library, which is applicable to cross-Functional Area (a.k.a. Line of Business) communications, is provided in Appendix A: Description of Terms.

Framework for Federal Financial Management Use Cases

This section describes the framework used for constructing the use cases. Use cases are constructed of scenarios and organized by end-to-end process. They show activities performed by other Functional Areas. They are cross-referenced to the FFM Business Capabilities (Federal Financial Management System Requirements [FFMSRs]) and the FFM Functions and Activities.

Functional Area, Function, and Activity

Program offices in an agency need various administrative and support systems, procedures, and personnel to deliver on their program missions. The term "Functional Area" is used to describe the systems, procedures, and personnel that accomplish the necessary end-to-end business processes.

Federal Financial Management (FFM) is a Functional Area. Other functional areas include Budget Formulation (BFM), Acquisition (ACQ), Property Management (PRM), Human Resource Management (HRM), Grants Management (GRM), Loans Management (LNM), Travel, Relocation, and Transportation Management (TRT), and Sales Order and Fulfillment Management (SFM).

A "Function" is a further breakdown of a Functional Area into categories of services provided to service customers. Examples of FFM Functions are Budget Execution, Payable Management, and General Ledger Management.

Within a Function, "Activities" are the processes that provide identifiable outputs or outcomes to service customers. Examples in the area of Payable Management are Payee Set-up and Maintenance, Payment Processing, and Payment Disbursement. Figure 1 provides an example of the Functional Area, Functions, and Activities concept.

Functional Area, Function, and Activities
Figure 1: Example Function Area, Functions, and Activities

A complete list of the FFM Functions and Activities is provided in the document "Federal Financial Management (FFM) Functions and Activities".

Most of the end-to-end business processes require integration across multiple Functional Areas with their Functions and Activities to achieve the business outcome. In addition to Federal Financial Management, the other Functional Areas contributing to the completion of each end-to-end business process are identified in Table 1: FFM Business Use Case List.

End-to-End Business Processes

Eleven end-to-end business processes with an FFM intersection have been identified and agreed upon for government-wide use. An end-to-end business process identifies a start-to-finish outcome for operational transactions and financial reporting. The end-to-end business process provides the context for executing financial management services. Examples of end-to-end processes are Procure-to-Pay and Agree-to-Reimburse. The full list of end-to-end processes is shown in Figure 3 below.

Business Scenarios

Business scenarios identify differing situations or conditions that occur when executing an end- to-end business process and reflect the scope and complexity of federal government agency missions. Business scenarios also define various business conditions that would cause the FFM solution functionality to be exercised in a different order or with different business information. For example, the Procure-to-Pay business scenario for a complex software system is different than for a purchase card.

Business scenarios are categorized into levels of commonality across federal agencies as follows:

  1. Level 1 (L1): Affects most federal agencies and/or impacts a large transaction volume and/or dollar value within the federal government
  2. Level 2 (L2): Affects multiple federal agencies and/or requires some specialized processing from the service customer or auditor perspective
  3. Level 3 (L3): Affects a few federal agencies and requires unique processing, mandated by legislation or regulation.

Business Use Cases

Business use cases represent typical processing that occurs in federal business operations. Business use cases are formed by combining business scenarios that could occur together within an end-to-end business process. For example, use case 040.FFM.L2.02 Four-Way Match includes scenarios for four-way matching of accounts payable invoices and Prompt Payment Act calculations.

Each business use case is assigned an identifier that provides information about the use case. The business use case identifier includes information about the key underlying components. The notation for a business use case identifier is shown in Figure 2 below:

Use Case Identifier Notation
Figure 2: Business Use Case Identifier Notation

Each business use case provides detail on the following:

  • interactions between FFM and other Functional Areas
  • business events to be accomplished by both FFM and other Functional Areas
  • business information expected to be received, processed, and/or provided.

Business use cases are agnostic as to whether the events in the business use case are automated, semi-automated, or manually accomplished. This allows an agency using the use cases to make the best decisions about where automation is most beneficial.

View the full FFM Overview of Use Cases by Business Process

This page was last updated on November 23, 2022.